Digital photography is the use of electronic sensors to capture images focused by the lens. This is unlike in other modes of photography where images are exposed to photographic films. The images captured in digital photography are then digitized and stored as computer files. These files can then be printed, stored, transmitted using digital and computer techniques without any use of chemicals.
Some of the files used to save digital photographs
Images can be stored in two ways, they are lossless compression algorithms and lossy compression algorithms.
Lossless compression algorithms reduces the size of the file while preserving an accurate copy of the original image. Example are RAW, TIFF, PNG.
Lossy compression algorithms reserves images in almost the same original uncompressed way but in the real sense it is capable of storing images in even smaller sizes than the lossless compression. Examples are JPEG, although the new format of JPEG 2000 is capable of storing images in lossless as well as in lossy format.
How images are captured in digital cameras
Digital cameras expose their sensors to light that is focused through a lens that contains an aperture. Before reaching the sensors, the light passes through a Bayer array which is a colored filter. When this light leaches the sensors, they sort the information and passes it to the Bayer demosaicing which then composes the image from the sensors data. During this process the recording of the intensity of each primary color for each pixel takes place. This results in a mix that may include more than 16 million colors and hence the photo is made.
How to make panoramic photos
The process of making panoramic photos is known as stitching, which in real sense is to overlap. The photos must be in sequence with each other and bearing a small part of the other. When they are loaded in a stitching software they are overlapped to form one large panoramic photo.